CReW Publications

Open the tabs below to view all CReW publications by year. To view publications by topic, please visit the Wind Power publications and/or the V2G publications pages. Reports, dissertations, and conference presentations are also included on the wind and V2G specific pages.


Kempton, W.; Pearre, N.S.; Guensler, R.; Elango, V.V. Influence of Battery Energy, Charging Power, and Charging Locations upon EVs’ Ability to Meet Trip Needs. Energies 2023, 16, 2104. Published DOI: (Open Access).  Using driving data from a sample of gasoline passenger vehicles, a trip inventory of U.S. vehicle travel requirements was created along with a set of modeled EVs to measure and track how well each EV meets all U.S. driving requirements. PDF available.


Bidwell, D., Firestone, J. and M. D. Ferguson, 2022: Love thy neighbor (or not): Regionalism and support for the use of offshore wind energyEnergy Research and Social Science, 90, 102599,

Bingaman, S., D. Bidwell, and J. Firestone, 2022: Winds of Change: Examining Attitude Shifts Regarding an Offshore Wind Project, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning

Cohen, E. B., J. J. Buler, K. G. Horton, S. R. Loss, S. Cabrera-Cruz, J. Smolinsky, P. P. Marra, 2022: Using weather radar to help minimize wind energy impacts on nocturnally migrating birds. Conservation Letters, 15(4), 00e12887,

Golbazi, M., C. L. Archer, and S. Alessandrini, 2022: Surface impacts of large offshore wind farms. Environmental Research Letters, 17, 064021, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ac6e49

Ma, Y., C. L. Archer, and A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, 2022: The Jensen wind farm parameterization. Wind Energy Science, 7(6), 2407–2431, doi: 10.5194/wes-7-2407-2022

Ma, Y., C. L. Archer, and A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, 2022: Comparison of individual versus ensemble wind farm parameterizations inclusive of sub-grid wakes for the WRF model. Wind Energy, 25(9), 1573-1595, doi: 10.1002/we.2758

Moghani, M., and C. L. Archer, 2022: Impacts of replacing coal with renewable energy sources and electrifying the transportation sector on future ozone concentrations in the U.S. under a warming climate. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 13(9), 101522, doi: 10.1016/j.apr.2022.101522

Kasperson, R.E., B. Ram, T. Webler, and J. Sutton, 2022: The social amplification of risk framework: New perspectives. Editorial for a Special Issue. Risk Analysis, 42(7), 1367-1380,

Parkison, S. B., and W. Kempton, 2022: Marshaling Ports Required to Meet US Policy Targets for Offshore Wind Power. Energy Policy, 163, 112817. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2022.112817

Ram, B., and T. Webler, 2022: Social Amplification of Risks and the Clean Energy Transformation: Elaborating on the Four Attributes of Information. Risk Analysis, 42(7), 1423-1439, doi: 10.1111/risa.13902

Russel, A., and J. Firestone, 2022: More Than a Feeling: Analyzing Community Cognitive and Affective Perceptions of Ocean Renewable Energy InfrastructureRenewable Energy, 193, 214-224,

Russel A., and J. Firestone, 2022.  Community cognitive and affective perceptions of land-based and ocean wind energy infrastructure, Science Talks, 4, 100090,


Ferguson, M., D. Evensen, D. Bidwell, J. Firestone, L. Ferguson, J. Dooley, and C. Mitchell, 2021: Uncharted Waters: Exploring Coastal Recreation Impacts, Coping Behaviors, and Attitudes towards Offshore Wind Energy Development in the United StatesEnergy Research & Social Science, 75, 102029,

Mironenko, O., G. Ejzak, and W. Kempton, 2021: Integrated Electric Vehicle Shunt Current Sensing System for Concurrent Revenue Metering and Detection of DC Injection. Energies, 14(4), 1193, doi: 10.3390/en14041193

Russell, A., and J. Firestone, 2021: What’s love got to do with it? Understanding Local Cognitive and Affective Responses to Wind Power ProjectsEnergy Research & Social Science, 71, 101833,

Wu, S., and C. L. Archer, 2021: Near-ground effects of wind turbines: Observations and physical mechanisms. Monthly Weather Review, 149(3), 879–898, doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-20-0186.1


Al Fahel, N., and C. L. Archer, 2020: Observed onshore precipitation changes after the installation of offshore wind farmsBulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology, 1179–203, 

Archer, C. L., S. Wu, Y. Ma, and P. A. Jiménez, 2020: Two corrections for turbulent kinetic energy generated by wind farms in the WRF model. Monthly Weather Review, 148(12), 4823–4835, doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-20-0097

Firestone, J., C. Hirt, D. Bidwell, M. Gardner, and J. Dwyer, 2020: Faring well in offshore wind power siting: Trust, engagement, and process fairness in the United StatesEnergy Research & Social Sciences, 62, 101393

Mironenko, O., and W. Kempton, 2020: Comparing Devices for Concurrent Measurement of AC current and DC Injection During Electric Vehicle Charging. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 11, doi:10.3390/wevj11030057 

Nakaro, H., I. Nawata, S. Inagaki, A. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, A. Ito, and W. Kempton, 2020: Aggregation of V2H Systems to Participate in Regulation Market. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, DOI: 10.1109/TASE.2020.3001060

Nouri, R., A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, and C. L. Archer, 2020: The Coriolis force and the direction of rotation of the blades significantly affect the wake of wind turbines. Applied Energy, 277, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115511

Parsons, G., J. Firestone, L. Yan, and J. Touissant, 2020: The effect of offshore wind power projects on recreational beach use on the east coast of the United States:  Evidence from contingent behavior dataEnergy Policy, 144, 111659, 

Qui, W., and J. Firestone, 2020: The non-negligible influence of global sea level change on the distribution of maritime zones, Marine Policy, 104267,

Russell, A., J. Firestone, D. Bidwell, and M. Gardner, 2020: Place meaning and consistency with offshore wind: An island and coastal taleRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 132, 110044, 


Archer, C. L., A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, C. Yan, S. Wu, Y. Pan, J. F. Brodie, and A. E. Maguire, 2018: Review and evaluation of wake loss models for wind energy applications. Applied Energy, 226, 1187-1207, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.085

Firestone, J., A. Bates, and A. Prefer, 2018: Power transmission—Where the offshore wind energy comes home, Environmental Innovations and Societal Transitions, 29, 90-99, doi: 10.1016/j.eist.2018.06.002

Firestone, J., D. Bidwell, M. Gardner, and L. Knapp, 2018: Wind in the Sails or Choppy Seas? People-Place Relations, Aesthetics and Public Support for the United States’ First Offshore Wind Project. Energy Research and Social Science, 40, 232-243, doi: 10.1016/j.eist.2018.06.002

Pan, Y., and C. L. Archer, 2018: A hybrid wind-farm parametrization for mesoscale and climate models. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 168, 469–495, doi: 10.1007/s10546-018-0351-9

Pan, Y., C. Yan, and C. L. Archer, 2018: Precipitation reduction during Hurricane Harvey with simulated offshore wind farms. Environmental Research Letters, 13(8), 084007, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aad245

Yan. C., and C. L. Archer, 2018: Assessing compressibility effects on the performance of large horizontal-axis wind turbines. Applied Energy, 212, 33-45, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.020


Apostolaki-Iosifidou, E., R. McCormack, W. Kempton, P. McCoy, and D. Ozkan, 2019: Transmission Design and Analysis for Large-Scale Offshore Wind Energy Development. IEEE Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal, 6(1), DOI:10.1109/JPETS.2019.2898688

Archer, C. L., and A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, 2019: Wake steering via yaw control in multi-turbine wind farms: Recommendations based on large-eddy simulationSustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 33, 34-43, doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2019.03.002

Archer, C. L., S. Wu, A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, J. F. Brodie, R. Delgado, A. St. Pé, S. Oncley, and S. Semmer, 2019: The VERTEX field campaign: Observations of near-ground effects of wind turbine wakes. Journal of Turbulence, 20(1), 64-92, doi: 10.1080/14685248.2019.1572161

Firestone, J., 2019. Wind Energy: A human challengeScience, 366(6470), 1206,

Firestone, J., and H. Kirk, 2019: A strong relative preference for wind turbines in the United States among those that live near themNature Energy, 4, 311-320,

Golbazi, M., and C. L. Archer, 2019: Methods to estimate surface roughness length for offshore wind energy. Advances in Meteorology, 2019, 5695481, 15 pp., doi: 10.1155/2019/5695481

Haac, R., K. Kaliski, M. Landis, B. Hoen, J. Rand, J. Firestone, D. Elliot, G. Hübner, and J. Pohl, 2019: Wind turbine audibility and noise annoyance in a national U.S. survey: Individual perception and influencing factorsJournal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146, 1124, 

Hoen, B., J. Firestone, J. Rand, D. Elliot, G. Hübner, J. Pohl, R. Wiser, E. Lantz, R. Haac, and K. Kaliski, 2019: Attitudes of U.S. Wind Turbine Neighbors: Analysis of a Nationwide SurveyEnergy Policy, 134, 110981, 

Hübner, G., J. Pohl, B. Hoen, J. Firestone, J. Rand, D. Elliot, and R. Haac, 2019: Monitoring annoyance and stress effects of wind turbines on nearby residents: a comparison of U.S. and European samplesEnvironment International 132, 105090, 

Yan, C., Y. Pan, and C. L. Archer, 2019: A general method to estimate wind farm power using artificial neural networks. Wind Energy, doi: 10.1002/we.2379



Archer, C. L., B. A. Colle, D. L. Veron, F. Veron, and M. J. Sienkiewicz, 2016: On the predominance of unstable atmospheric conditions in the marine boundary layer offshore of the U.S. northeastern coastJournal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 121(15), 8869-8885, doi: 10.1002/2016JD024896.

Buonocore, J., Patrick Luckow, Jeremy Fisher, Willett Kempton and Jonathan I Levy, 2016, Health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities in the Mid-Atlantic United StatesEnvironmental Research Letters, Volume 11, Number 7. Published doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074019. 

Colle, B. A., M. J. Sienkiewicz, C. L. Archer, D. L. Veron, F. Veron, W. Kempton, and J. E. Mak, 2016: Improving the Mapping and Prediction of Offshore Wind Resources (IMPOWR): Experimental overview and first results. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, August 2016, 1377-1390, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00253.1. 

Ghaisas, N., and C. L. Archer, 2016: Geometry-based models for studying the effect of wind farm layoutJournal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 23(3), 481-501, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00199.1

Kempton, Willett, “Electric vehicles: Driving range“, Nature Energy, News & Views, August 2016. DOI: 10.1038/NENERGY.2016.131 (may require payment), or here for author’s draft with markup. Also see news article at .

Vasel-Be-Hagh, A., and C. L. Archer, 2016: Wind farms with counter-rotating wind turbinesSustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2016.10.004.


Apostolaki-Iosifidou, E., P. Codani, and W. Kempton, 2017: Measurement of Power Loss During Electric Vehicle Charging and Discharging. Energy, 127, 730-742, DOI: 10.1016/

Archer C. L., H. P. Simão, W. Kempton, W. B. Powell, M. J. Dvorak, (2017), The challenge of integrating offshore wind power in the U.S. electric grid. Part I: Wind forecast errorRenewable Energy, 103, 346-360, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.11.047

Burt, M., J. Firestone, J. Madsen, D. Veron, and R. Bowers, 2017:  Tall Towers, Long Blades and Manifest Destiny:  The Migration of Land-based Wind from the Great Plains to the Thirteen Colonies, Applied Energy, 206, 487-497, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.08.178

Firestone, J., 2017. Legal Framework to Develop Offshore Wind Power in United States, Ch. 6. in Anton Ming-Zhi Gao and Chien-Te-Fan, Eds. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROMOTION OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER. Kluwer Law

Firestone, J., Hoen, B., Rand, J., Elliot, D., Hubner, G., & Pohl, J. 2017. Reconsidering Barriers to Wind Power Projects:  Community Engagement, Developer Transparency and Place Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 20(3): 370-386, DOI:, pre-print available at

Ghaisas, N. S., C. L. Archer, S. Xie, S. Wu, and E. Maguire, 2017: Evaluation of layout and atmospheric stability effects in wind farms using large-eddy simulationWind Energy, 20(7): 1227-1240 doi: 10.1002/we.2091

Houser, R., Kempton, W., McGee, R., Kiamilev, F. et al., “EV Fingerprinting,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1700, 2017, DOI: 10.4271/2017-01-1700

E. Kasperson, Ram B., and Ratick S. (2017). “How can we be sure that we are working on the right risks?” Chapter in Risk Conundrums: Solving Unsolvable Problems. (Kasperson et al). Earthscan Routledge.

Lance Noel, L, Brodie, JF,  Kempton, W,  Archer, CL,  Budischak, C 2017. Cost minimization of generation, storage, and new loads, comparing costs with and without externalitiesApplied Energy, 189: 110-121. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.12.060

Noel, L., J. Brodie, W. Kempton, C. L. Archer, and C. Budischak, 2017: Cost minimization of generation, storage and new loads, comparing costs with and without externalitiesApplied Energy, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.12.060

Ram, B., and J. Stephens, 2017: Risk conundrums of the renewable energy transition: can we balance opportunities, optimism, and challenges? Chapter in Risk Conundrums: Solving Unsolvable Problems. Edited by Kasperson, Earthscan Routledge. 

Santos-Alamillos, F., C. L. Archer, L. Noel, C. Budischak, and W. Facciolo, 2017: Assessing the economic feasibility of the gradual decarbonization of a large electric power systemJournal of Cleaner Production, 147, 130-141, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.097

Simão, ​H. P., W. B. Powell, C. L. Archer, W. Kempton, (2017), The challenge of integrating offshore wind power in the U.S. electric grid. Part II: Simulation of electricity market operationsRenewable Energy, 103, 418-431, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.11.049

Sovacool, Benjamin K., Lance Noel, John Axsen, and Willett Kempton, 2018. The neglected social dimensions to a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition: a critical and systematic review. Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018) 013001. Published DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa9c6d

Thomson, H. and Kempton, W.,  2017. Perceptions and attitudes of residents living near a wind turbine compared with those living near a coal power plantRenewable Energy, Volume 123. 

Vasel-Be-Hagh, A., and C. L. Archer, 2017: Wind farm hub height optimizationApplied Energy, 195, 905-921, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.089

Xie, S., and C. L. Archer, 2017: A numerical study of wind-turbine wakes for three atmospheric stability conditionsBoundary-Layer Meteorology, doi:10.1007/s10546-017-0259-9.

Xie. S., C. L. Archer, N. Ghaisas, and C. Meneveau, 2017: Benefits of collocating vertical-axis and horizontal-axis wind turbines in large wind farmsWind Energy, 20(1), 45-62, doi: 10.1002/we.1990


Bates, A.  and Firestone, J. A Comparative Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Demonstration Projects in the United StatesEnergy Research and Social Science, 10: 192-205 (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2015.07.007, [pre-print]

Firestone, J., C. L. Archer, M. P. Gardner, J. A. Madsen, A. K. Prasad, and D. E. Veron, 2015: Opinion: The time has come for offshore wind power in the United StatesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(39), 11985-11988, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1515376112. Open Access

Firestone, J., Bates, A., and Knapp, K.A., See me, feel me, touch me, heal me:  Wind turbines, culture, landscapes and sound impressionsLand Use Policy, 46:241-249 (2015), Published doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.02.015.  Open Access.  The license can be found at   Duplicate of the article is available here

Hughes, C., and D. E. Veron, 2015. Characterization of Low-level Winds of Southern and Coastal DelawareJournal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology,54, 77-93. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0011.1

Knapp, L. and Ladenburg, J How Spatial Relationships Influence Economic Preferences for Wind Power—A ReviewEnergies 2015, 8(6), 6177-6201. Open Access

Noel L, and Firestone, J, 2015. Public Trust Doctrine Implications of Electricity ProductionMichigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law, 5(1): 169-256

Ram, B. Book review. Wind Power. Politics and Policy Author: Scott Victor Valentine. Energy Research and Social Science. Volume 10, November 2015, Pages 298–299.

Shinzaki, S., Sadano, H., Maruyama, Y., and Kempton, W., “Deployment of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology and Related Issues,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0306, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0306

Xie, S., and C. L. Archer, 2015: Self-similarity and turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes via large-eddy simulationWind Energy, 18(10), 1815–1838, doi: 10.1002/we.1792

Xie, S., N. Ghaisas, and C. L. Archer, 2015: Sensitivity issues in finite-difference large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer with dynamic subgrid scale modelsBoundary-Layer Meteorology, 157(3), 421-445, doi: 10.1007/s10546-015-0071-3


Archer, C. L., L. Delle Monache, and D. Rife, 2014: Airborne Wind Energy: Optimal locations and variabilityRenewable Energy, 64, 180–186, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2013.10.044.

Jacobson, M. Z., C. L. Archer, and W. Kempton, 2014: Taming hurricanes with arrays of offshore wind turbines, Nature Climate Change, 4,195–200, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2120. [pdf]

Kempton, Willett, Yannick Perez, Marc Petit, “ ‪Public Policy for Electric Vehicles and for Vehicle to GridPower‪ ”, Revue d’économie industrielle 4/2014 (No 148) , p. 263-290. URL:

Noel, Lance and Regina McCormack, 2014. A cost benefit analysis of a V2G-capable electric school bus compared to a traditional diesel school busApplied Energy, 126: 246-265. Published doi: 10.1016/j.a[emergy.2014.04.009As accepted copy.

Parsons, George R., Michael K. Hidrue, Willett Kempton and Meryl P. Gardner. 2014. “Willingness to pay for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles and their contract terms”Energy Economics , 42 (2014), p313-324. Published doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2013.12.018, may require payment.

Pensini, Alessandro, Claus N. Rasmussen, and Willett Kempton, 2014: Economic analysis of using excess renewable electricity to displace heating fuelsApplied Energy, 131: 530-543. Published doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.04.111, open access. PDF

Prasad AK, “Analytical solution for the optimal spacing of wind turbines,” ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 136:011107 (5 pages), 2014.

Samoteskul, K., Firestone, J., Corbett, J., Callahan, J., Analysis of Vessel Rerouting Scenarios to Open Areas for Offshore Wind Power Development Reveals Significant Societal BenefitsJournal of Environmental Management, 141: 146-154 (2014). Published doi:10.1016/j.jevman.2014.03.026As accepted copy.

Tuler, S. , Ram, B. and Kasperson, R. (2014) “Wind Energy Facility Siting: Learning from Experience and Guides for Moving Forward.” Wind Engineering. Volume 38, NO. 2, 2014. doi: 10.1260/0309-524X.38.2.203


Archer, C. L., B. A. Colle, L. Delle Monache, M. J. Dvorak, J. Lundquist, B. H. Bailey, P. Beaucage, M. J. Churchfield, A. C. Fitch, B. Kosovic, S. Lee, P. J. Moriarty, H. Simao, R. J. A. M. Stevens, D. Veron, J. Zackhttp, 2013: Meteorology for coastal/offshore wind energy in the United States: Recommendations and research needs for the next 10 years. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00108.1.

Archer, C. L., and M. Z. Jacobson, 2013: Geographical and seasonal variability of the global “practical” wind resourcesApplied Geography, 45, 119-130, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.07.006.

Archer, C. L., S. Mirzaeisefat, and S. Lee (2013), Quantifying the sensitivity of wind farm performance to array layout options using large-eddy simulationGeophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4963–4970, doi:10.1002/grl.50911.

Archer, C. L., 2013: Chapter 5 – An introduction to meteorology for airborne wind energy, in Airborne wind energy – Fundamentals and applications. Springer, ISBN 978-3-642-39964-0, 81–94. 

Budischak, Cory, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, and Willett Kempton (2013), Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power, and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the timeJournal of Power Sources, 225(2013), 60-74. Published doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.054, open access. A one-page follow-up corrects two errors in the published article, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.046

Kasperson, R. and Ram, B. (2013). “The Public Acceptance of New Energy Technologies.”  Winter 2013. Daedalus. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Washington, D.C. doi: 10.1162/DAED_a_00187 

Kasperson, R. and Ram, B. (2013). ”Transformation of Energy Systems and the Public.” Energy Delta Institute Quarterly (Volume 5, Issue 1). March 2013. Groningen, Netherlands.​

Kasperson, R. and Ram, B. (2013).  “Rapid Transformation of the US Electric Power System: Prospects and Impediments.”. Chapter in, Toward Successful Adaptation: Linking Science and Practice in Managing Climate Change Impacts (ed. Susanne Moser and Max Boykoff). 2013. Routledge.

Kempton, Willett, Francesco Marra, Peter Bach Anderson and Rodrigo Garcia-Valle, 2013 “Business Models and Control and Management Architectures for EV Electrical Grid integration,” accepted, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe. Pre-publication version. Chapter 4 of Electric Vehicle Integration Into Modern Power Networks edited by Rodrigo Garcia-Valle and Joao A. Pecas Lopes (published by Springer Science + Business Media), pp. 87-105. Copyright 2013, IEEE. Doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0134-6_4.

Lilley, Jonathan and Jeremy Firestone, The effect of the gulf oil spill on public attitudes toward offshore oil drilling and wind developmentEnergy Policy, 62: 90-98 (2013).



Budischak, Cory, DeAnna Sewell, Heather Thomson, Leon Mach, Dana E. Veron, and Willett Kempton, 2012, Cost-minimized combination of wind power, solar power, and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the timeJournal of Power Sources, 225(2013), 60-74. Published doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.954, open access. A one-page follow-up corrects two errors in the published article, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.046. Our PDF, contains the correction page. 

Dvorak, M. J., E. D. Stoutenburg, C. L. Archer, W. Kempton, and M. Z. Jacobson (2012), Where is the ideal location for a US East Coast offshore grid?Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L06804, Published doi:10.1029/2011GL050659, open access. [pdf]

Firestone, Jeremy, Willett Kempton, Meredith Blaydes Lilley, and Kateryna Samoteskul, Public acceptance of offshore wind power across regions and through time, 2012, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 55:10, 1369-1386. Published doi:10.1080/09640568.2012.682782. Downloaded PDF.

Jacobson, M. Z., and C. L. Archer, 2012: Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(39), 15679–15684, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208993109. [pdf]

Mason, J. E., and C. L. Archer, 2012: Baseload electricity from wind via Compressed Air Energy StorageRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(2), 1099–1109, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.009. [pdf]​

Rogner, H.-H., R. F. Aguilera, C. L. Archer, R. Bertani, S. C. Bhattacharya, M. B. Dusseault, L. Gagnon, H. Haberl, M. Hoogwijk, A. Johnson, M. L. Rogner, H. Wagner and V. Yakushev, 2012: Chapter 7 – Energy Resources and PotentialsIn Global Energy Assessment – Toward a Sustainable Future, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 423– [pdf]

Sheridan, Blaise, Scott D. Baker, Nathaniel S. Pierre, Jeremy Firestone, and Willett Kempton, 2012, Calculating the offshore wind power resource: Robust assessment methods applied to the U.S. Atlantic CoastRenewable Energy, 43, p224-233. Published doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.11.029, may require payment. Preprint PDF, with minor typos.


Dhanju, Amardeep, Jeremy Firestone, and Willett Kempton, 2011, Potential role of power authorities in offshore wind power development in the USEnergy Policy, 39 (2011), p 7025-7035. Published doi:10.1016/enpol.2011.08.002, may require payment. Final Proof.

Firestone, J. and J. Kehne, Wind Energy, chapter in Michael Gerrard (ed.), The Law of CleanEnergy: Efficiency and Renewables, American Bar Association (2011).

Firestone, J., Perceptions and Preferences Regarding Offshore Wind Power in the United States-The Leading Edge chapter in Patrick Devine-Wright, Ed. Publlic Engagement and Renewable Energy, Earthscan, 2011.

Hidrue, Michael K., George R. Parsons, Willett Kempton, and Meryl P. Gardner, Willingness to pay for electric vehicles and their attributesResource Energy Econ. (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.reseneeco.2011.02.002, may require payment. Proof, may contain typos.

Krueger, A., G. Parsons, and J. Firestone, Valuing the Visual Disamenity of Offshore Wind Power Projects at Varying Distances from the Shore: An Application on the Delaware ShorelineLand Economics, 87(2): 268-83 (2011), pdf.

Levitt Andrew C.; Kempton Willett; Smith Aaron P.; Walt Musial; and Jeremy Firestone, 2011, Pricing offshore wind powerEnergy Policy 39 (10): 6408-6421.  Published doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.044, may require payment. Uncorrected proof.

Madsen, J., Bates,A., Callahan,J. Firestone, J. 2011. Use of Geospatial Techniques in Planning for Offshore Wind Facilities chapter in J.K. Thakur, S.K. Singh, A. Ramanathan, M.B.K. Prasad, W. Gossel,(eds.) Geospatial Techniques: Managing Environmental Resources (Springer and Capital Publication).

Muscarella, P., N. Barton, B. L. Lipphardt, Jr., D. E. Veron, and A. D. Kirwan, Jr., 2011: Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay MouthContinental Shelf Research, 31, 1282–1293.

Pearre, Nathaniel S., Willett Kempton, Randall L. Guensler, and Vetri V. Elango, Electric vehicles: How much range is required for a day’s driving? Transport.Res.Part C (2011), doi:10.1016/j.trc.2010.12.010, may require payment. Proof, may contain typos.

Ram, B. “Assessing Integrated Risks of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments.” (2011). Wind Engineering. 35 (2) 247-265



Dvorak, M. J., C. L. Archer, and M. Z. Jacobson, 2010: California offshore wind energy potentialRenewable Energy, 35(6), 1244–1254, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2009.11.022. [pdf]

Kempton, Willett, Felipe M. Pimenta, Dana E. Veron, and Brian A. Colle (2010), Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnectionProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (16): 7240-7245, April 20, 2010. Published doi: 10.1073/pnas.0909075107. open access. Article’s online supporting information (methods, etc). Duplicate of both article and supporting information in one PDF here.

Lilley, Meredith Blaydes, Jeremy Firestone and Willett Kempton, 2010, The effect of wind power installations on coastal tourismEnergies 3(1), 1-22; (special issue on Wind Energy). Published doi:10.3390/en3010001, open access. (Duplicate PDF here).


Archer, C. L., and K. Caldeira, 2009: Global assessment of high-altitude wind powerEnergies, 2(2), 307–319, doi:10.3390/en20200307. Author’s PDF.

Dhanju, Amardeep, and Jeremy Firestone, 2009, Access system framework for regulating offshore wind power in state waters. Coastal Management, 37:5,441-478. Published doi: 10.1080/08920750902856004, may require payment. Final Proof.


Archer, C. L. and K. Caldeira, 2008: Historical trends in the jet streamsGeophysical Research Letters, 35(8), L08803, doi: 10.1029/2008GL033614. [pdf]

Dhanju, Amardeep, Phillip Whitaker, Willett Kempton (2008), Assessing offshore wind resources: An accessible methodologyRenewable Energy, 33(1): 55- 64. Published doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.03.006, may require payment. Proof PDF, with minor errors.

Firestone, J., W. Kempton and A.Krueger, 2008, Public acceptance of offshore wind power projects in the United StatesWind Energy 12(2): 183 – 202. Published doi: 10.1002/we.316, may require payment. Proof PDF.

Garvine, Richard W. and Willett Kempton, 2008, Assessing the wind field over the continental shelf as a resource for electric powerJournal of Marine Research 66 (6): 751-773. (Nov 2008). Published article PDF.

Jiang, Q., J. D. Doyle, T. Haack, M. J. Dvorak, C. L. Archer, and M. Z. Jacobson, 2008: Exploring wind energy potential off the California CoastGeophysical Research Letters, 35(20), L20819, doi: 10.1029/2008GL034674. [pdf]

Lilley, M.B., and J. Firestone, 2008, Wind power, wildlife, and the migratory bird treaty act: A way forwardEnvironmental Law, 38(4). Published, may require payment. Prepublication manuscript.

Lund, Henrik and W. Kempton (2008), Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G. Energy Policy 36 (9): 3578-3587. Published doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.06.007, may require payment. Preprint proof. Published and proof versions have errors in Table 2, see corrected Table 2) here.

Pimenta, Felipe M., Willett Kempton, Richard W. Garvine, 2008, Combining meteorological stations and satellite data to evaluate the offshore windpower resource of Southeastern BrazilRenewable Energy 33: 2375-2387. Published doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.01.012, may require payment. Proof; contains several errors.


Archer, C. L. and M. Z. Jacobson, 2007: Supplying baseload power and reducing transmissions requirements by interconnecting wind farms. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46(11), 1701–1717. doi: 10.1175/2007JAMC1538.1 [pdf]

Firestone, J. and C. Jarvis, 2007, Response and responsibility: Regulating noise pollution in the marine environmentJournal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 10(2): 109-52. Published doi:10.1080/13880290701347408, may require payment. PDF.

Firestone, J. and W. Kempton, 2007, Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors, Energy Policy 35: 1584-1598. Published doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.04.010, may require payment. PDF.

Kempton, Willett, Cristina L. Archer, Richard W. Garvine, Amardeep Dhanju and Mark Z. Jacobson (2007), Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent storage in energy end-uses. Geophysical Research Letter, 34, L02817. Published doi:10.1029/2006GL028016, may require payment. Proof PDF, with minor typos. See also summary press release.

Tomić, Jasna and Willett Kempton, 2007, “Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support” Journal of Power Sources, 168 (20), p459-468. Published doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.03.010., may require payment. Proof with minor errors.


Kempton, Willett and Amardeep Dhanju, 2006, “Electric Vehicles with V2G: Storage for Large-Scale Wind Power”Windtech International 2 (2), pp 18-21, March 2006. This article appeared in the March 2006 issue of Windtech International and is displayed with permission. Copyright 2006 by Siteur Publications.

Letendre. Steven, Paul Denholm, and Peter Lilienthal, 2006.“Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: New Load or New Resource?”Public Utilities FortnightlyDecember 2006., p28-37. (This article is co-authored by employees of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright.) PDF of published article.


Archer, C. L. and M. Z. Jacobson, 2005: Evaluation of global wind powerJournal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 110(D12), doi: 10.1029/2004JD005462. [pdf]

Archer, C. L., M. Z. Jacobson, and F. L. Ludwig, 2005: The Santa Cruz Eddy. Part I: Observations and statistics. Monthly Weather Review, 133, 767–782. doi: 10.1175/MWR2885.1 [pdf]

Archer, C. L. and M. Z. Jacobson, 2005: The Santa Cruz Eddy. Part II: Mechanisms of formationMonthly Weather Review, 133, 2387–2405. doi: 10.1175/MWR2979.1 [pdf]

Firestone, Jeremy, W. Kempton, A. Krueger, and C.E. Loper, 2005, Regulating offshore wind power and aquaculture: Messages from land and seaCornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, 14 (1): 71-111. Published. Final proof PDF.

Kempton, W., J. Firestone, J. Lilley, T. Rouleau and P. Whitaker, 2005, The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape CodCoastal Management 33 (2): 119-149. Published doi:10.1080/08920750590917530, may require payment. PDF.

Kempton, Willett and Jasna Tomić. 2005. “Vehicle to Grid Power Implementation: from stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy”Journal of Power Sources, Volume 144, Issue 1, 1 June 2005, p280-294. Published doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.022, may require payment. Final proof. 

Kempton, Willett and Jasna Tomić. 2005. “Vehicle to Grid Fundamentals: Calculating Capacity and Net Revenue”Journal of Power Sources, Volume 144, Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 268-279. Published doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.025, may require payment. Final proof.

2004 and prior

Archer, C. L. and M. Z. Jacobson, 2003: The spatial and temporal distributions of U.S. winds and windpower at 80 m derived from measurementsJournal of Geophysical Research – Atmosphere, 108(D9), doi: 10.1029/2002JD0020076. [pdf]

Letendre, Steven and Willett Kempton, 2002. “The V2G Concept: A New Model for Power?”Public Utilities Fortnightly 140(4): 16-26, February 2002, may require payment. Proof. Also available in our Japanese translation.

Kempton, Willett and Toru Kubo. 2000. “Electric-drive Vehicles for Peak Power in Japan”Energy Policy 28(1): 9-18. Published doi:10.1016/SO301-4215(99)00078-6, may require payment. Final proof. Also available in our Japanese translation.

Kempton, Willett and Steven Letendre, 1997. “Electric Vehicles as a New Source of Power for Electric Utilities”Transportation Research 2(3): 157-175. Published doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(97)00001-1, may require payment. Proof.

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